Xi Jinping’s visit to Germany for Merkel Mini Chinese netizens speculated connotation 1735 mapukiosks
28, 2009, Chinese President Xi Jinping‘s visit to Germany, German Chancellor Angela Merkel carry rare appearances of "First Gentleman" Shao Mi "private dinner" Xi Jinping. In accordance with diplomatic practice, the two sides exchanged gifts. Xi Jinping gave Merkel a Chinese porcelain vase, while Xi Jinping Merkel gave a gift is a 18th century map of China. News disclosed, users have to guess: That in the end is what kind of map sheets?
With the map as a gift seems rare. According to Merkel, said, "This is a map of China. Was first a precise map of China 1735 German drawn." From the screen view, Merkel presented the map, this is not the full picture China, but only draw one in eastern China‘s "local map", not marked on the map north, west and northeast in most areas, and even the color of Taiwan and Hainan are also central figure in different colors.
According to research, the figure should be a famous 18th-century German geographer Hohmann Haas and his family members "relay" make and keep a map , the content of the Han Dynasty Emperor Kangxi 15 Province : map drawn only inherited the Ming Han , a dark blue border Mongolian frontier -free area , such as the army and the Confederate flag , and therefore can not be called China map , but only the 35 provinces , said Han Chinese figure – then Hunan, Hubei and Hunan , Hubei still ; Jiangsu, Anhui Province, southern or ; Shaanxi, Gansu, Shaanxi still . Based on the 1735 French original , first published in China Du Halde atlas " of the Chinese Empire whole annals ." It is reported that the French cartographer de Anvil (D · Anville) made this map in 1734 .
The map de Anvil again from Emperor Kangxi in the Qing Dynasty , " Kangxi Huang s Map ." 1708 compilation by the Emperor Kangxi ordered to astronomical observations and astrology triangulation manner, by drawing trapezoidal projection method, the ratio of 1/400000 . Maps depicting the range to the northeast of Sakhalin Island, to the southeast of Taiwan , west Ili River , north to the North Sea ( Lake Baikal ) , south cliff (now Hainan Island ) . Europeans who are drawing Jesuit Leixiao Si , Bouvet , Dodd United States and China scholars He Guodong , cable column , Bai Yingtang , the amount of tribute , and Astronomical Mingantu Chu child Qin Tibetan lamas Britney wood Champasak , Li Fan School principal wins lived more than ten people .
"Kangxi Huang s Map" is China’s first painted with a graticule national map. After hiring Western missionaries drawn by latitude and longitude measurements. Among them, the place of latitude and longitude values measured at six hundred, many using the triangulation method, and use a small number of astronomical measurements. This map has great significance in the history of Chinese maps, a variety of Chinese maps from the mid-Qing Dynasty to the Early Republic of China published abroad are basically derived from this map.
The figure is also the first piece depicting maps of Tibet. Emperor Kangxi was a visionary, the earliest scientific ordered to draw maps of Tibet. Mainly by the two lamas educated in Beijing. Every year between 1708 to 1716, their extensive collection of data surveyed from Xining to Lhasa in mountainous regions and the source of the Ganges, and completed the first piece of the map of Tibet in 1717.
The figure after a decade of field mapping, was initially completed in 1718, but not yet vested because the Mongol Khanate Qing Dynasty, Junggar, Xinjiang was unable to detail painted area, Emperor Qianlong sent someone scrutinizing behind twice to completion. (Qianlong 24 years (1759), put down the northwest frontier, has twice sent officials led by foreigners and Tibetan monks, to Xinjiang Junggar tribes and other regions Huibu mapping, the Tianshan road up painting full of rain. Qianlong twenty-five Year (1760) completed the "Qianlong map within the government". "Qianlong prefecture map" map sheet than the "Kangxi Huang s Map" more than doubled, north to the Arctic Ocean, south of the Indian Ocean, west of the Red Sea, the Mediterranean and Baltic Sea, is actually a full map of the Asian continent, was called "mass scale thirty-six countries, the macro two thousand years of sound teaching.")
Later, someone put a copy of "Kangxi Huang Yu full view map" gave the King of France. Anvil is based on "Kangxi Huang s Map" made famous atlas "of the Chinese Empire full records", this atlas authority maintained until the early 19th century, the 1950s.
That is, the local topography and political area in 1736 China map depicted Merkel presented should be divided in 1700-1735 Kangxi – Yongzheng period of China’s major regions. San Francisco was already flat, the return of Taiwan, Resident Minister establishment. China strength gradually grow and influence increasingly international. It is also France, Germany and other countries in continental Europe was the main have sights east, depicting important background map of China, it is understood that the painting "Map gifts" important basis.
Before the 17th century, Europeans "China" only a vague awareness, reflected in the map that was no independent morphology China. As the 16th century Jesuits to become a bridge between China and Europe, all aspects of China‘s gradually being recognized by Europe, geographic contours and geographical knowledge is also part of China, from China map in Europe with an independent field of cartography form.
2014 04 01
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